Dress form mannequin 2018

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Mannequins in form a clothing shop in Mannequins in store, 31 Rue Cambon,

A mannequin (also called a manikin, dummy, lay figure or dress form) is an often articulated used by artists, tailors, dressmakers, windowdressers and others especially to display or fit. The term is also used for life-sized dolls with simulated used in the teaching of,, and advanced airway management skills such as and for human figures used in to model the behavior of the human body. During the 1950s, mannequins were used in to help show the effects of nuclear weapons on humans.

Mannequin comes from the word mannequin, which had acquired the meaning "an artist's jointed model", which in turn came from the word manneken, meaning "little man, figurine". In early use in the United Kingdom, it referred to fashion models themselves, the meaning as a dummy dating from the start of.



Shop mannequins are derived from used by fashion houses for dress making. The use of mannequins originated in the 15th century, when miniature "milliners' mannequins" were used to demonstrate fashions for customers. Full-scale, mannequins came into use in the mid-18th century. Wirework mannequins were manufactured in Paris from 1835.

Shop display[]

The first fashion mannequins, made of, were made in France in the mid-19th century. Mannequins were later made of wax to produce a more lifelike appearance. In the 1920s, wax was supplanted by a more durable composite made with plaster.[6]

Modern day mannequins are made from a variety of materials, the primary ones being fiberglass and plastic. The fiberglass mannequins are usually more expensive than the plastic ones, tend to be not as durable, but are significantly more impressive and realistic. Plastic mannequins, on the other hand, are a relatively new innovation in the mannequin field and are built to withstand the hustle of customer foot traffic usually witnessed in the store they are placed in.

A mannequin outside a shop in North India.

Mannequins are used primarily by retail stores as in-store displays or window decoration. However, many online sellers also use them to display their products for their product photos (as opposed to using a live model). While the classic female mannequin has a smaller to average breast size, manufacturers are now selling “sexy/busty mannequins” and “voluptuous female mannequins” with 40DDs and Barbie doll-sized waists.

Use by artists[]

Historically, artists have often used articulated mannequins, sometimes known as lay figures, as an aid in drawing draped figures. The advantage of this is that clothing or drapery arranged on a mannequin may be kept immobile for far longer than would be possible by using a living model.

Medical education[]

Medical mannequins, models or related artefacts such as SimMan, the or are widely used in. These are sometimes also referred to as. The term manikin refers exclusively to these types of models, though mannequin is often also used.

In courses manikins may be used to demonstrate methods of giving first aid (e.g., ). Fire and coastguard services use mannequins to practice life-saving procedures. The mannequins have similar weight distribution to a human. Special obese mannequins and horse mannequins have also been made for similar purposes.

In popular culture[]

A wooden mannequin Mannequins in a clothing shop in Indonesia

Mannequins were a frequent motif in the works many early 20th-century artists, notably the,, and. Shop windows displaying mannequins were a frequent photographic subject for.

episode "" involves mannequins taking turns living in the real world as people.

Mannequins are a common theme in horror fiction. Many people find mannequins disturbing (due in part perhaps to the effect), especially when not fully assembled. In the 1970 serial, an alien intelligence attempts to take over with killer plastic mannequins called. Mannequins come to life and attack the living in "The Trevi Collection" (episode 14 of the T.V. series ).[] Abandoned nuclear test sites consisting of entire towns populated by mannequins appear in such films as,, and the 2006 remake of.

The 1987 film is a story of a man who falls in love with a mannequin that comes to life (played by ).

A family of mannequins pose for a photograph

The cast of the satirical Japanese television series "" consists entirely of inanimate mannequins with voices dubbed in.

Two mannequins can be seen on the cover of the album by. Both were.

The music video for 's hit single "" features the band performing in a church full of mannequins.

Commercials for the clothing store Old Navy sometimes use inanimate mannequins with voices dubbed in.

Military use[]

Military use of mannequins is recorded amongst the ancient Chinese, such as at the. The besieged Tang army lowered scarecrows down the walls of their castles to lure the fire of the enemy arrows. In this way, they renewed their supplies of arrows. Dummies were also used in the trenches in World War I to lure enemy snipers away from the soldiers.

A report describes the use of a mannequin ("Jack-in-the-Box") as a measure, intended to make it more difficult for the host country's to track the movement of CIA agents posing as diplomats. A "Jack-in-the-Box" – a mannequin representing the upper half of a human – would quickly replace a CIA agent after he left the car driven by another agent and walked away, so that any counterintelligence officers monitoring the agent's car would believe that he's still in the car.

See also[]


  1. . Seattle Times Trinity Web. Seattle Times Company. 1995.
  2. Trivedi, Bijal P. (15 July 2002)...
  3. .. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2004. Retrieved 2009-08-07.
  4. 1902. XXVII. 119 Another salon ornamented with tall mirrors in which were reflected the slender elegant figures of several mannequins, most of them exceedingly pretty and all arrayed in magnificent dresses... 1939 M. B. Picken Lang. Fashion 97/2 Mannequin model of human figure for display of garments, hats, furs, etc.. (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or required.)
  5. ^ Steele, Valerie (ed.). Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. p. 377
  6. ^ Steele, Valerie (ed.). Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. p. 379
  7. ^ and by The Shop Company
  8. Dr. Ted Eisenberg and Joyce K. Eisenberg, ‘’The Scoop on Breasts: A Plastic Surgeon Busts the Myths,’’ Incompra Press, 2012,  
  9. ..
  10. . Gordon Center for Research in Medical Education. Archived from on 2007-03-28.
  11. Cooper Jeffery B, Taqueti VR (December 2008).. Postgrad Med J. 84 (997): 563–570. :.  .  . Retrieved 2011-05-24.
  12. Holzhey, Magdalena. 2005. Giorgio de Chirico 1888–1978 the modern myth. Koln: Taschen. pp. 42–43.  
  13. Cowling, Elizabeth; Mundy, Jennifer. 1990. On Classic Ground: Picasso, Léger, de Chirico and the New Classicism 1910-1930. London: Tate Gallery. p. 54.  
  14. .. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  15. Mulkern, Patrick (14 September 2009)... Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  16. McQuade, Dan (4 December 2013)... Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  17. . Archived from on 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2012-10-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ()
  18. Royden, Barry G. (2003),, Studies in Intelligence, 47 (3)

Further reading[]

  • Gross, Kenneth - The Dream of the Moving Statue ( 1992,  )
  • Verstappen, Stefan. The Thirty-six Strategies Of Ancient China. 1999.

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